A CPW Fed Circular SRR Inspired Flexible Antenna using Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Substrate for WLAN and WBAN Applications


This article presents a 50×40 mm 2 coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed triple-band flexible antenna operating at 5, 5.8, and 6.6 GHz for wireless local area network (WLAN) and wireless body area network (WBAN) applications. In the proposed design, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is used as a substrate with a dielectric constant εr of 2.65 and a loss tangent tan δεr of 0.02. In addition to the rectangular slot on the ground, the presented antenna has a single circular split-ring resonator (SRR) structure on the same side of the patch. This provides the required frequency notched characteristics for the targeted frequency bands, compactness, minimize losses, and backward radiation when used in close proximity to the human body. The proposed flexible antenna provides stable results in terms of performance parameters and specific absorption rate (SAR). We have also investigated the antenna under different operating conditions of moisture and bending. There exists a strong correlation between the simulation and measured findings.
Date of Publication: February 22, 2022
Electronic ISSN: 2768-167X
Publisher: IEEE
Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Pilani Campus, Rajasthan, India
Praveen Kumar Sharma (Member, IEEE) received the B.E. degree (Hons.) in electronics and communication engineering from the University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India, in 2008, and the M.E. degree in electronics and communication engineering from the National Institute of Technical Teachers Training and Research (NITTTR), Chandigarh, India, in 2015.
He is currently working as a Research Scholar with the Birla Institute of Technology and Science at Pilani (BITS Pilani), Pilani, India. His research interests include antennas, material science, microwaves, and electromagnetics.
Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Pilani Campus, Rajasthan, India
Navneet Gupta (Senior Member, IEEE) is currently working as a Professor with the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science at Pilani, Pilani, Rajasthan, India. He has published more than 70 research articles in international journals of high repute. He has also presented more than 65 papers in various conferences in India and abroad. Six Ph.D. students have graduated working under his supervision. He is also an expert reviewer of many reputed international journal publishers, including IEEE, Springer, Elsevier, and Institution of Engineers (India) (IEI). His research interests include modeling of micro/nanoelectronic devices, flexible and wearable electronics, and computational material science and electromagnetics.
Prof. Gupta is also a Life Member of renowned professional bodies, such as the Semiconductor Society of India, the Material Research Society of India (MRSI), and the Optical Society of India (OSI) and a fellow of IEI.
1.C. K. Chiang et al., "Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 39, no. 17, pp. 1098, 1977.

2.H. K. Raad, H. M. Al-Rizzo, A. I. Abbosh and A. I. Hammoodi, "A compact dual band polyimide-based antenna for wearable and flexible telemedicine devices", Prog. Electromagn. Res. C, vol. 63, pp. 153-161, 2016.

3.Q. H. Abbasi, M. U. Rehman, X. Yang, A. Alomainy, K. Qaraqe and E. Serpedin, "Ultrawideband band-notched flexible antenna for wearable applications", IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1606-1609, 2013.

4.H. A. Elmobarak, S. K. A. Rahim, X. Castel and M. Himdi, "Flexible conductive fabric/E-glass fibre composite ultra-wideband antenna for future wireless networks", IET Microw. Antennas Propag., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 455-459, Mar. 2019.

5.X. L. Chang, P. S. Chee, E. H. Lim and N.-T. Nguyen, "Frequency reconfigurable smart antenna with integrated electroactive polymer for far-field communication", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 856-867, Feb. 2022.

6.A. Al-Sehemi, A. Al-Ghamdi, N. Dishovsky, G. Atanasova and N. Atanasov, "Flexible polymer/fabric fractal monopole antenna for wideband applications", IET Microw. Antennas Propag., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 80-92, Jan. 2021.

7.R. B. Simorangkir, Y. Yang, L. Matekovits and K. P. Esselle, "Dual-band dual-mode textile antenna on PDMS substrate for body-centric communications", IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 677-680, 2016.

8.R. B. V. B. Simorangkir, Y. Yang, R. M. Hashmi, T. Björninen, K. P. Esselle and L. Ukkonen, "Polydimethylsiloxane-embedded conductive fabric: Characterization and application for realization of robust passive and active flexible wearable antennas", IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 48102-48112, 2018.

9.A. A. Bakar et al., "Polydimethylsiloxane as a potential antenna substrate", Acta Phys. Polonica A, vol. 135, no. 5, pp. 938-941, May 2019.

10.S. M. Abbas, S. C. Desai, K. P. Esselle, J. L. Volakis and R. M. Hashmi, "Design and characterization of a flexible wideband antenna using polydimethylsiloxane composite substrate", Int. J. Antennas Propag., vol. 2018, pp. 1-6, Feb. 2018.

11.A. A. Bakar et al., "Polydimethylsiloxane as a potential antenna substrate", Proc. 8th Int. Adv. Appl. Phys. Mater. Sci. Congr. (APMAS), vol. 135, pp. 938-941, 2019.

12.N. Tiercelin, P. Coquet, R. Sauleau, V. Senez and H. Fujita, "Polydimethylsiloxane membranes for millimeter-wave planar ultra flexible antennas", J. Micromech. Microeng., vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 2389, 2006.

13.N. Li, "Design and investigation on wideband antenna based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for medical imaging application", Przegląd Elektrotechniczny, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 91-94, Mar. 2020.

14.H. Jeong and S. Lim, "A stretchable radio-frequency strain sensor using screen printing technology", Sensors, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1839, Nov. 2016.

15.M. Seki, R. Aoyama, J. Wook Hong, T. Fujii and I. Endo, "Multiple diagnostic analyses by enzymatic and chemical reaction on a PDMS microchip", Proc. 1st Annu. Int. IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conf. Microtechnol. Med. Biol., pp. 21-24, Oct. 2000.

16.P. K. Sharma, N. Gupta and P. I. Dankov, "Characterization of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as a wearable antenna substrate using resonance and planar structure methods", AEU Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol. 127, Dec. 2020.

17.P. K. Sharma, N. Gupta and P. I. Dankov, "Analysis of dielectric properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as a flexible substrate for sensors and antenna applications", IEEE Sensors J., vol. 21, no. 17, pp. 19492-19504, Sep. 2021.

18.P. K. Sharma, N. Gupta and P. I. Dankov, "Wideband transmission line characterization of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as a wearable antenna substrate", Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Electron. Comput. Commun. Technol. (CONECCT), pp. 1-4, Jul. 2020.

19.D. Chaturvedi and S. Raghavan, "A dual-band half-mode substrate integrated waveguide-based antenna for WLAN/WBAN applications", Int. J. RF Microw. Comput.-Aided Eng., vol. 28, no. 5, Jun. 2018.

20.P. Vasina and J. Lacik, "Circularly polarized rectangular ring-slot antenna with chamfered corners for off-body communication at 5.8 GHz ISM band", Radioengineering, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 85-90, Apr. 2017.

21.S. Agneessens and H. Rogier, "Compact half diamond dual-band textile HMSIW on-body antenna", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 2374-2381, May 2014.

22.B. B. Qas Elias, P. J. Soh, A. A. Al-Hadi and G. A. E. Vandenbosch, "Design of a compact wideband and flexible rhombic antenna using CMA for WBAN/WLAN and 5G applications", Int. J. Numer. Model. Electron. Netw. Devices Fields, vol. 34, no. 5, Aug. 2021.

23.R. K. Singh and A. Gupta, "Design and development of U-shaped slot wearable antenna for WLAN/Wi-Fi and WBAN applications", Proc. Int. Conf. Adv. Comput. Commun. Control Netw. (ICACCCN), pp. 1063-1067, Oct. 2018.

24.H. Yalduz, B. Koç, L. Kuzu and M. Turkmen, "An ultra-wide band low-SAR flexible metasurface-enabled antenna for WBAN applications", Appl. Phys. A Solids Surf., vol. 125, no. 9, pp. 1-11, Sep. 2019.

25.M. Kanagasabai et al., "On the design of frequency reconfigurable tri-band miniaturized antenna for WBAN applications", AEU Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol. 127, Dec. 2020.

26.P. K. Sharma and N. Gupta, "Design and analysis of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Jean substrate based flexible antenna for ultra-wideband applications", IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig., pp. 1-4, 2021.

27.P. I. Dankov, P. K. Sharma and N. Gupta, "Numerical and experimental investigation of the opposite influence of dielectric anisotropy and substrate bending on planar radiators and sensors", Sensors, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 16, 2021.

28.A. Yadav, V. K. Singh, A. K. Bhoi, G. Marques, B. Garcia-Zapirain and I. de la Torre Díez, "Wireless body area networks: UWB wearable textile antenna for telemedicine and mobile health systems", Micromachines, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 558, May 2020.

29.S. Peter Hall and Y. Hao, Antennas and Propagation for Body-Centric Wireless Communications, Dedham, MA, USA:Artech House, 2012.

30.S. Gabriel, R. W. Lau and C. Gabriel, "The dielectric properties of biological tissues: III. Parametric models for the dielectric spectrum of tissues", Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 2271, 1996.

31.S. R. Zahran, M. A. Abdalla and A. Gaafar, "Time domain analysis for foldable thin UWB monopole antenna", AEU-Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol. 83, pp. 253-262, Jan. 2018.

32.F. Alsharif and C. Kurnaz, "Wearable microstrip patch ultra wide band antenna for breast cancer detection", Proc. 41st Int. Conf. Telecommun. Signal Process. (TSP), pp. 1-5, Jul. 2018.

33.U. Ali, S. Ullah, M. Shafi, S. A. A. Shah, I. A. Shah and J. A. Flint, "Design and comparative analysis of conventional and metamaterial-based textile antennas for wearable applications", Int. J. Numer. Model. Electron. Netw. Devices Fields, vol. 32, no. 6, Nov. 2019.

34.K. Hossain et al., "A negative index nonagonal CSRR metamaterial-based compact flexible planar monopole antenna for ultrawideband applications using viscose-wool felt", Polymers, vol. 13, no. 16, pp. 2819, Aug. 2021.

35.S. Roy and U. Chakraborty, "Metamaterial based dual wideband wearable antenna for wireless applications", Wireless Pers. Commun., vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 1117-1133, Jun. 2019.

36.M. V. Rao, B. T. P. Madhav, T. Anilkumar and B. Prudhvinadh, "Circularly polarized flexible antenna on liquid crystal polymer substrate material with metamaterial loading", Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 866-874, Feb. 2020.

© Copyright 2021 IEEE - All rights reserved. A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity.

starchevron-down linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram